Networking and SecurityWeb Security Vulnerabilities

Web Security Vulnerabilities

Open web security projects are considered as a non-profitable charitable organization that is focused on improving the security of software as well as a web application. There are top-listed web security vulnerabilities that are entirely based on the data that comes from various security organizations. These vulnerabilities entirely depend on exploitation, detectability, and impacts on the software. 

  • Exploitability:  Highest exploitation is caused when the attack requires only a web browser as well as the lowest in the case of advanced programming and tools. 
  • Detectability:  Detection is highest when the info is displayed on the URL, form, or error message lowest being when source code.  
  • Impact or the damages: Damage can be highest when the complete system gets crashed as well as minimal damage is caused when nothing can cause impact.

What are web application vulnerabilities?

Web vulnerabilities are related to system flaws which mean weakness in the web-based application. And, the major reason is the non-validated or sanitized form inputs, misconfigured web servers, app design flaws that can be exploited by compromising the application’s security. Howsoever, this vulnerability is found to be different in comparison to common vulnerabilities such as networks or assets.  This is caused because of web applications that need to interact with various users on multiple networks and the easy level of accessibility of which hackers can take advantage. 

There are lot of web application security solutions that have been designed specifically which introduce the potential to look beyond the traditional vulnerability scanners when it identifies the gaps present in the organizational application security. It is important to understand the risk of the different types of web applications and cyber security attacks. Web scanner measures are utilized to increase the safety level of the application. 


The major objective is to educate the developers, managers, architects, designers, and organizations about all the important security vulnerabilities.  This post is going to go a bit deeper with vulnerabilities to provide to make the best choice to secure the everlasting web application of the organizations.  


Injection flaws are caused when attackers make use of the unfiltered or malicious data to encounter the databases or directories that are interlinked with the web application. Two of the most common injection attacks are SQL injection and LDAP. First, one is used to attack the databases and the second is used to attack directories.  

 Affected objects: 

Injection attacks make use of the input fields which interact with the directories and databases that be easily executed against vulnerabilities. The usernames, passwords, and other areas get interacted with the target. The fields are at risk due to a lack of input filters when the development of databases or directories takes place. 


There are several ways to prevent this attack and the best option is the addition of filters to the input. With the SQL databases, one needs to make use of the prepared statements which can help in preventing attacks that can manipulate queries. LDAP injection applies escape protocol to cross through the manipulating directory. 

Broken Authentication: 

Authentication is useful for the application in identifying and validating users. Broken authentication allows the attackers to access similar to the targeted user to create severe web application vulnerabilities. Authentication issues can easily give rise to the attacker unrestricted access to the data and wreak havoc for the web application. 

Affected objects:

Authentication vulnerabilities comprise improper passwords, leaking user account data, improper set timeouts, monstrous force attacks, or stuffing passwords such as password1 or admin1234. 


Protect the web application by simple fixing by making use of multi-factor authentication which can help in verifying the correct user. The creation of a strong password along with periodic passwords needs to be updated for a better experience. Proper configuration of timeouts and password securities within the range of the database prevents authentication issues. 


Sensitive data is transported or stored without encryption or any other sort of protection which leaves behind the information vulnerable for every type of attack. 

Affected objects:

There are ways for attacking the unprotected data. First of all, data need to be transported from the user to the client because the attack can easily steal data from the packets. Second, comes the stored data that is more complicated can be only exposed through the encryption keys that store the data or weak passwords and credentials. 


Prevention of sensitive data is found to be vital for the security of the application. Data vulnerabilities in the motion, HTTPS, and perfect forward secrecy (PFS), ciphers need to be implemented for the available incoming data to the site. Disable data catch can store sensitive information which acts as another way to protect data. But in the case of transported data, stored data is considered to be at risk of attack and exposure too. Encryption of data stored in the databases keeps the encryption keys stored separately to reduce exposure. Elimination of outdated data or data needs to be minimally exposed. But when there is no data then there is no risk. 


Misconfiguration, breaking, or missing server-side authorization can raise the risk which causes opened back end for the attacks. 

Affected objects: 

This attack takes place when front-end UIs configured with components to provide admins access to the data or many other vital application elements. Generally, users cannot command over the admin function but those in search of vulnerabilities can uncover the exploitation of the flaw with the application of malicious requests. 


Howsoever, fixing this flaw is quite simple. The only thing needed is that all server-side authentication needs to be active and configured for the prevention of unwanted access. 


The web application is found to be misconfigured that leave behind the array of vulnerabilities ready for attack to capitalize. Security misconfigured vulnerabilities comprise unpatched flaws, unused pages, unprotected files or directories, outdated software, and running software in the debugging mode. 

Affected objects:

Every aspect of the web application is found to be affected by security misconfigurations. But when the misconfiguration is discovered, then it is vital to run a security audit to check out the attacks and breaches. 


Prevention for security configuration vulnerabilities is found to be quite simple. For example, making use of a deployment protocol can lead to continually developing and deploying updates within a secured environment or segmented application architecture which prevents the security application from risk. Automatic deployment helps in keeping the application up-to-date as well as preventing attacks. 


Cross-site scripting makes use of malicious code that gets inserted into benign sites to attack the user’s web browser. Attackers can insert the code via the link as well as with the help of social engineering lure the users to click on the link to execute the code. The attacker makes use of JavaScript for XSS vulnerabilities to access the user’s webcam, location as well as other sensitive data and functions. 

Affected objects:

XSS vulnerabilities are found to be common where-so-ever the input is not sanitized. XSS allows the attacker to attempt for stealing the cookies from the user’s browsers as well as access browsing the history and other sensitive information. 


The vulnerabilities associated is XSS can be only fixed with the encryption of the sanitized input. Sanitized input is used in stopping user input from any sort of manipulation and injecting them into the website. Moreover, validating and escaping user input is helpful in the prevention of malicious injection.  


Whenever database keys or files are found to be exposed to the users then insecure direct object reference vulnerabilities exist. Exposed internal objects, attackers make use of the enumeration attacks for accessing the objects as well as gaining the data to access the sensitive databases. But the other authentication is found to be non-existent or broken. 

Affected objects:

Database objects are found to be often vulnerable via URL parameters that can expose the serialized data keys to attackers who can manipulate the accessible information. Static files are found to be manipulating and can be even changed by the attacker to access all the sensitive info or other users’ data. 


Preventive access of the sensitive files, as well as databases, can be executed with server-side input validation. Testing of the server-side helps prevent malicious users from manipulating URL parameters and file names. Moreover, one needs to access control to help in determining the user with the permission as well as change the files or databases. 


Security breaches with the web application can bring about a lot of damages and even tarnish the company’s reputation. Application and software development along with the framework needs to be more secure. Howsoever, attackers need to find a better way for attacking the vulnerable. Howsoever, deployment is not found to be the end of the road but found to help minimize the weakness and secure the application to a greater extent. 

Also Read: Nginx Web Server Security Best Practices


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